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basic political terminology

Start studying Basic Political Terminology. A vote cast by voters who are out of their division but still within their State or Territory which may be cast at any polling place in that State or Territory. Where they exist, some examples would be a constitution upon which the supreme court could review the validity of laws or executive decisions, recall elections for politicians and / or judges, veto power over legislation held by the chief executive, and citizens’ initiated referenda. Transfer of powers from the national or central government to state or local government. During an election, however, they are called CONSTITUENCIES. party, political; passive resistance; phalanstère; plebiscite; political action committee; political science; poll; poll tax; populism; post office; postage stamp; postal service; pragmatic sanction; premier; president; press, freedom of the; pressure group; primary; prime minister; proletariat; propaganda; proportional representation; public land; public opinion poll; referendum Political science is a broad field of study. I'm CEO of Eg. An unexpected, somewhat unknown candidate with little public exposure who has potential to win an election against established candidates. A bellwether is a ram with a bell attached to indicate to the farmer where the flock is when not in sight. To track down a political candidate to a public event and get in a position to ask him/her questions on issues they would rather not talk about, and to ask follow-up questions if answers are evasive. The concept of moral obligation and binding duty. A type of laissez-faire policy, where, in response to calls for government funding or regulation to address a recently developed problem, a ‘do nothing’ approach is alternatively undertaken in the belief that, over time, it will improve, or at least not hurt, the interests of the "neglected" group. List of Most Common Political Terms With Their Meanings, Of all topics relating to English Vocabulary, Politics is, without doubt, the most. GLOSSARY OF POLITICAL TERMS - A - absentee ballot - A ballot marked by a registered voter and mailed to a board of elections before the date of an election, as by a person who will be out of town or working at the polling place on that day or by an ill or disabled person who cannot go to This has the effect of minimising the chances of minority candidates winning seats. If there are three seats to be won in an election then in theory a quota of 33.3% of the vote (Hare) is needed to win every seat. Spanish for neighbourhood or quarter. In such decisions, the selected candidates would get one quarter of a vote each, or half a vote, or where only one candidate received the vote, the whole vote. MI5 is a Civil Service whilst some of the James Bond characters such as Q, M, and Moneypenny would be Civil Servants. Theory advocated in Nevil Shute’s novel ‘In the Wet’, as well as Mark Twain’s short story ‘The Curious Republic of Condour’. (I am a Roman Citizen). A wasteful government financed infrastructure developed at a cost much greater than its value, undertaken for local or political gain. Now we’re getting close to the big day. This dictionary provides the user with the basic vocabulary used in the fields of government and politics, especially in the United Kingdom, the European Union and the United States, and also contains some more informal terms used in the media. Using language to distort or even reverse the meaning of unpalatable information that has to be given. But, as if that’s not bad enough, once in power, they are under NO obligation to stick to it at all! for ‘famous case’. In pro-rep electoral systems the realistic quota to win a seat versus the theoretical quota. A situation in American primary presidential election campaigns where no candidate, by the time of the convention after the final primary election, has accrued a majority of delegates. For many students studying Business English and practising their business email writing skills is an important part of their course. Government by the people in fact rather than merely in principle. We will try to tread through this minefield together to understand the keywords and phrases. A form of government where unlimited power is held by one single individual. The two fictional races of the future from H.G. MI5 is a Civil Service whilst some of the James Bond characters such as Q, M and Moneypenny would be Civil Servants. The action or process of treating a person as a mere commodity rather than someone possessing civil rights such as autonomy. A place of work where the union has arranged that the employer will only employ those who are its members. Dog litter: Mess left by a dog. Geographical areas used as a criterion for political representation. Fortunately, in Britain, this process doesn’t go on for too long. A form of federalism where the individual regions that make up the sovereign state exercise a larger degree of autonomy. The system of law, as exists in the Anglo-American world, where an issue is argued in court by two opposing sides, the prosecutor or plaintiff, and the defence. The American state of Nevada is a bellwether state for presidential elections in that, with only one exception, it has voted the same as the whole country for a century. A derogatory Chinese term to describe what the speaker sees as a naïve white liberal advocating modern ideologies such as peace, empathy and equality in a virtue signalling manner, Spanish for neighbourhood or quarter. Country house retreat of the British Prime Minister. Electorates can also be multiple member and sometimes the term can refer to the voting public in general. An MP crossing the floor of Parliament to vote with his/her opposition. Also the term for a group of people within an establishment with a common political leaning. Security Council terminology in Sahara resolutions is evolving towards terms compatibile with the requirements for a political settlement. Polling stations will all close at the same agreed time where upon teams of people begin the count. Otherwise known as the unthinking vote. The power of the government to claim private property. Sadly, it doesn’t always work as we would hope. Sadly, it doesn’t always work as we would hope. In Australia candidates can be nominated by political parties or stand as independents. We also get your email address to automatically create an account for you in our website. Campaigns happen outside politics too, perhaps the most famous one in Britain was the ‘Anti-Hunting Campaign’. You vote for a local CANDIDATE. Period of relative peace and optimism between the Franco Prussian War and World War I (1871-1914), marked by progress in the arts, literature, technology and economic development where “European civilisation exerted its maximum influence upon” the world. Legislative programs which aim to create minority equality in employment, university placements, housing  and other government beneficial situations even though, most of the time, outright discrimination against so called majorities is not ostensibly advocated. But, with this list of political terms you’ll soon be part of the conversation. A metonymic phrase referring to a governments’ superficial appeasement of the hoi polloi regarding  contemporary problems. Country house retreat of the American president. This is the area represented by one person (voted for in the election) in Parliament. Sometimes includes a Bill of Rights. A country that is economically or militarily dependent upon another, but not actually controlled politically by the patron state as in the case of a ‘puppet state’. A voted Member of Parliament, When there are scandals in the news involving MPs, the people in the area they represent, (the constituents) feel let down and betrayed. The Queen gets the ball rolling when she DISSOLVES the current parliament (she doesn’t stop it, cease it, remove it or cancel it, she dissolves it!) To follow and support a no-chance-of-winning campaign or cause because of peer pressure. Caesar divorced his wife Pompeia after it was suspected, but not proven, that she aided a third party to commit the crime of sacrilege. NOT the Departments and the Civil Service. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'myenglishteacher_eu-medrectangle-3','ezslot_0',662,'0','0'])); Of all topics relating to English Vocabulary, Politics is, without doubt, the most uncompromising and difficult! However in practice, once a candidate has won 25% [100/(3+1)] of the vote, plus one more actual vote, he/she is granted a seat because it is then impossible for three further candidates to also win seats. To abuse a position means you take more than is yours to take. Ongoing work within Parliament is trying to ensure that a position in government is not abused, but it is a difficult one. Examples would be the Dreyfus affair, the Scopes Monkey Trial and the American Roe v Wade Supreme Court case. Term derived from the then department of Agitation and Propaganda of the Soviet Union. e.g. Sometimes includes a Bill of Rights. Cabinet Minister: A person belonging to the cabinet. A date is set and the. You will probably be understood but you won’t sound. One is IN POWER (currently elected and running things), the next is called the, SHADOW PARTY (the next most popular party when voting took place and they are. The Prime Minister of the UK David Cameron has CALLED a General Election: The UK is currently HOLDING an Election. An office, place or high order which gives one the opportunity to propagate one’s views. or trust your views. Aka serial migration. This is the online edition of A Glossary of Political Economy Terms by Dr. Paul M. Johnson of Auburn University. 1)Conflict of Interests Definition: a situation in which a person is in a position to derive personal benefit from actions or decisions made in their official capacity. Sudden and often violent internal overthrow of a government. To find out and publish on the internet private or identifying information about a public figure or organisation, such as their address. Any Party can write anything in their Manifestos. A variant of preferential voting eliminating the chances of minority candidates winning when too many mainstream candidates run against each other. However, they don’t have to say HOW they would do this. The term Political Theory as used in the contemporary sense, may mean the scientific theory, the positivist theory, or the behavioral theory. If they do say how they will do it and it sounds plausible they are more likely to be voted for. The winner is not necessarily the first or second highest delegate holder but can also be a compromise candidate, as happened in the 1924 Democratic convention. and is still being written! A vote that the presiding officer of decision-making body, who normally does not vote so as to give an impression of impartiality, has the option to exercise when it would have an effect. An economic system based on the recognition of private property rights, where prices are dictated by supply and demand, and where the means of production and distribution of goods and services derive from privately owned resources, or capital, operating within an unregulated market. Aka the Age of Reason. Alternative to utopia. That which teaches us to govern ourselves.”      Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Electorate: The public who voted for someone, Constituents: The people who live in a constituency. The ‘board of directors’ of executive government. E. sometimes used as a derogatory term to describe people who advocate policies which give a short-term gain without considering possible long term adverse ramifications. Book is now popular with both sides of the political divide. Political definition, of, relating to, or concerned with politics: political writers. Temporary or permanent suspension of hostilities in war by mutual agreement. Party: Group with similar feelings or ambitions on how the country should be run. In the US the taking must be for “public use” and “just compensation” must be paid. reek for gathering place or assembly. In Australia there is no restriction on state governments doing such, but when the federal government takes property it must be done on “just terms”. for ‘well thinking’. If you work closely with lawyers in your daily role, chances are you’ve been stumped by a legal term a time or two. The ‘cronies’ of politicians receive favouritism in legal permits, government grants, tax breaks, licences and other forms of state intervention. The following terms often suffer misuse because of the lack knowledge of history; examples include liberal, conservative, democracy, republic, left wing, right wing, fascism, and nazism. Often regarded as less than a 10% margin ie requiring a swing of 5% or less, though very dependent on prevailing political conditions. English philosopher of the 18th century and founder of Utilitarianism. You might ‘HOLD a party in her honour’, or ‘HOLD a service in his memory’. Bill is from the Latin ‘bulla’, seal, relating to a sealed document, and act from ‘actum, meaning a thing completed or formally done. Fr. The United Kingdom, meanwhile, is divided into small regions. Controversial as to whether or not a renewable energy. In this article, we outline—in plain English—the most common legal terms that all non-lawyers should know, broken out by industry, so that you can be more effective in your job. In other words, this elected person should do everything they can to take the problems and queries of the people in the constituency to Parliament to be discussed and hopefully changed. Candidates: People who put themselves forward to be voted for in an Election. A tax on the spending of income rather than the earning of it, so as to include people who might otherwise evade income tax such as those in the black economy or successful with tax avoidance schemes. Looking for most commonly used business English idioms and phrases? How to respond to How Are You? free market economic system abused to the degree where some business people have become successful due to their relationships with government. Ultimate pragmatist who believed policy decisions should be those that produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Israel was unable to become a party to the additional Protocols because political terminology had intruded into … The Public Purse: Money collected by government in the form of taxes. One who leaves their home country for political reasons. Simple Subject and Predicate, Examples & Worksheets, 15 Ways to Say ‘You are Welcome’ in Spanish. The devotion to the interests of others (alter in Latin) above that of the self. A carpet bag was a fashionable form of luggage of the time used by northern “Yankees”, political appointees or businessmen, who moved down to southern states during the American post-Civil War Reconstruction era taking advantage of the instability, power vacuum and fire sale prices of the property market. In the realms of political terminology, the term dominion can be directly attributed to the Fathers of Confederation and it is one of the very few, distinctively Canadian contributions in this area. Made up of the President / Prime Minister as chairman and each director as a secretary or minister responsible for the relevant government departments such as defence, environment, trade etc. and the Prime Minister CALLS a General Election, (he doesn’t start it, begin it, initiate it or create it, he CALLS an election). The town square in ancient Greek city states used for political discussions and decision making as well as other activities such as artistic and spiritual gatherings. Rules / undertakings sometimes declared at public meetings where the identity or affiliation of a speaker cannot later be made public when and if mentioning what was said. They are STILL the Government! The pre-Civil War slave states of America united to form the Confederated States of America to maintain states’ rights. She has worked as an illustrator for a number of years also living on the Côte d’Azur, but now concentrates more fully on teaching English as a foreign language and writing articles on a regular basis for AnglaisPoitiers. Also another name for an electorate. Power can take many forms, from brute force to articulate persuasion. Derogatory term for a politician who panics easily and shows signs of caving when newer, creative, or more ideological policies their party advocates start to come under criticism. Constituency: Areas of the UK. All of them could say they were working, although her role is mainly symbolic), the, The Prime Minister of the UK David Cameron has, All very specific terminology and phrasing. A derogatory Chinese term to describe what the speaker sees as a naïve white liberal advocating modern ideologies such as peace, empathy and equality in a virtue signalling manner. Fr. Often taken as synonymous with right wing with a penchant for censorship and state control to protect against ‘immoral’ personal behaviour, but technically an attitude of belief in the established order and suspicious of change. A party, generally an advocacy group, who is granted permission by an appellate court to be involved in proceedings even though it was not directly involved in the original case. The citizenry themselves voting on all issues affecting them. This is hard, so here is a phrase to help. A theory to explain the discrepancy sometimes noticed between pre-election polling and election results where the “socially acceptable” candidate or proposition did not win. Football analogy to describe a tactic of questionable legitimacy whereby the executive and / or the legislature manufacture a process whereby an action can be claimed to be legal even though, prima facie, it violates the tenets and text of the constitution. If approved at all stages it then becomes an act and thus law. A tax levied on goods and services such as sales tax, GST, VAT or an excise tax. It is a quest for realism, precision comprehensiveness, and detachment to obtain “neat and tidy” results to explain and generalize political phenomena. Giga-fren. Derived from a fable about a group of mice who decide the best way to be warned when the cat is near is for someone to place a bell around its neck, only to find there are no volunteers to perform that task. Considered by most to be a highly impractical form of government. An act by a member of a party to enhance his/her chances of being chosen as a candidate in an upcoming election by arranging, and paying membership fees, for a suitably large number of people, who may or may not have any interest in politics, to join the party in the relevant electorate/branch for no other reason than to support that member. (The man CALLS it, the country HOLDS it!). State within a state. A manipulative leader who gains popularity by appealing to prejudice and basic instincts. They could promise or ‘pledge’ to eradicate dog litter from the streets, or promise to pay all poor families more money. Foreign Office, the Minister of this department is called the ‘Foreign Secretary’. British-American poet and historian of the Soviet Union and other aspects of 20th century totalitarianism. Business English phrases for meetings. is a 18th century London house previously occupied by three Prime Ministers and now by the influential think tank, the Royal Institute of International Affairs. She has worked as an illustrator for a number of years also living on the Côte d’Azur, but now concentrates more fully on teaching English as a foreign language and writing articles on a regular basis for, 15 Business English Idioms and Phrases In Use –, Useful English Phrases For Running A Business Meeting, 7 Simple Examples of Business Email Writing in English, A Practical Guide to Using Diplomatic English in a Business Environment, Formal and Informal Email Phrases Starting with Greetings, Polite Expressions in English: Words, Phrases and Questions to be Kind, Discover How to Be a Successful Negotiator in English Once and for All, 5 Less Known Skype Apps that May Help You a Lot with Language Learning, Animals List A-Z with Pictures [Infographic] – English Vocabulary for Kids, What are some good sayings for regretting something? think what obstacles might arise or who might try to stop you. Basic Political Terminology (Page 29) State o An area organized into a political unit, and ruled by an A date is set and the campaigning begins. An economic and political system in which private individuals and corporations control trade and industry Cathaoirleach The Irish word for chairperson Caucus A group or a meeting of people, especially members of a political party, with power to decide on policy Cause A goal or aim of a group of people, normally for social or political change With the advent of legislation limiting the amount an entity can donate to a political candidate,  political campaigns have to put more emphasis on the number of donors solicited rather than a limited number of wealthy donors who are often directly approached by the candidate him / her self. Key Terms free in Post- basic political terminology pdf Colonial Theory. An act rarely forgiven in Commonwealth countries but common in the USA. How To Improve Communication Skills In English For Beginners, 3 Ways to Improve Listening Skills in English for Beginners. In Australia, it is a proposal ratified by the Governor General and at least one house of parliament, and then approved in a referendum by a 'double majority': a national majority of voters in the States and Territories; and a majority of voters in a majority of the States. in personal life, if any one make politics,,, that is business life. This usually happens automatically when you pay taxes in the UK. The people are ready to vote. “by virtue of one’s office”. Belligerent diplomatic relations where at least one party is prepared to risk all and go to the brink of war/ economic ruin/ or whatever calamitous situation, to get what they want. 12 people, each one is head of a major Department, therefore they are all Ministers. The day arrives and local vilage halls or sometimes school rooms are turned into POLLING STATIONS. Once your account is created, you'll be logged-in to this account. A suddenly vacated Senate seat filled not by an election but by State government appointment. The pre-requisite to voting. The name for proposed legislation entered into the house / houses of parliament to be debated upon for approval. The reason for this is that power would be in transition due to an election being due or being called suddenly due to the success of a vote of no confidence, or some other situation where legitimate democratic government has to be restored. Whether you’re writing to friends, colleagues or to a potential business partner, your main goal is to get your message across, in other words, to ensure the recipient understands you. ‘white left’. The shortfall in any one year of a nation’s income as compared to its expenditure / the total unpaid accumulated debt of the government over time. Jarring:Incongruous, doesn’t seem to fit, seems out of place. For example, The Foreign Office or The Foreign Office or The Department of the Environment. those departments, working for the government. they won surprise elections and ended up in Parliament! In other words, this elected person should do everything they can to take the problems and queries of the people in the constituency to Parliament to be, discussed and hopefully changed. Go over some of the foundational concepts of political science by checking out this set of flashcards. First Past the Post’ voting but with the added concept that one can tick (approve of) as many candidates’ names as one wishes, but in no order of preference. In Ireland university graduates get to elect six university seats as well as exercising a normal vote shared by all other citizens. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. If you’ve ever found yourself in a situation where you have to tell your boss or a client some bad news, then you’ll know just how important it is to be able to use diplomatic English. The ability of a party to produce a particular good or service at a lower marginal or opportunity cost than another. Junior Cabinet Minister: An assistant to  Cabinet Minister. Named after their Peoples’ Charter of six demands: universal male suffrage, equal electoral districts, secret ballot, no qualifications to enter parliament, pay for MPs and annual elections. Whereas progressives wants change. open or contested convention. Any one-off reading is informative when taking into account what each country’s unit of currency will buy in its own domestic market. Their economics can be summed up as socialism is about government and capitalism is about the free market. This video deals with some regularly used political terms...this video is completely recorded in mobile itself, so please use earphones at 80% volume for better audibility. Whereas a nation’s enacted laws are deemed to protect people from the harmful deeds of their fellow citizens, a B.o.R is deemed to protect the citizenry from the excesses of their rulers. UN-2. Elected Members of Parliament are paid to serve the public. 15 other ways to say In Conclusion Synonyms for IN... Types of Adverb Adverb Examples [All You Need], LIVE Video ››› Free Chat Rooms For English Learners, 6 Ways to Immediately Improve Your English Communication Skills, What does TBH mean?

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