Over the years I have looked at and photographed lots of interesting things through the looking glass. Section 32: Attempts To Revive Memory In Court (1) A witness must not, in the course of giving evidence, use a document to try revive his or her memory about a fact or opinion unless the court gives leave. Document examiners use a wide range of magnification equipment. Questioned document examiners define a ‘questioned document’ as any piece of evidence that bears symbols, marks or signs meant for a communication. If further magnification is used, a microscope is very useful in examining printing processes, ink strokes, security features and other document features. The paper fiber disturbances are targeted by the instrument. If further magnification is used, a microscope is very useful in examining printing processes, ink strokes, security features and other document features. Foster and Freeman makes a Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), allowing ink comparisons and many other types of document analysis. See if you can guess what they are. Of course the computer is an essential aid to anyone who writes reports, runs a business, and handles finances. Much of the work in questioned document examination was conducted with modern scientific instruments such as the estereomicroscope, the electrostatic indentation Apparatus (ESDA), an instrument that detects latent writings, marks and impressions of fingerprints and palm prints in paper, Infrarred and Ultraviolet Video Imaging System, typewriter measure plates, photographic equipment … Below are 6 reasonably common items photographed at varying powers. But the computer is not just a source of trouble for the document examiner, or a help in making attractive and informative exhibits. This document does not provide detailed advice on instrument … A whole new area of potential document fraud has developed around the computer. Just as the examiner once had to divert from the study of handwriting to learn about a new machine, the typewriter, now he must learn about the computer and the output devices that are associated with it. 2. These tools can be grouped into 6 categories: 2. magnification (magnifiers/microscopes). In addition, a microscope can have a third viewing tube which allows a still or video camera to be attached for "through the microscope" photography or videography. The Anatomy and Function of the Retina. This equipment is used for non-destructive analysis of questioned documents in the presence of seemingly equal but physically different features of writing. MAGNIFICATION - Magnifiers/Microscopes. A Questioned Document can be KDX Forensic Consulting, LLC is a Chicago based Forensic Document Examination firm with over 8 years of … THE FIELD OF FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINATION instruments, travel documents, licenses, and various personal credentials and identification documents) 3. If ink dating would be of benefit to a case, a document examiner will refer the client to an ink chemist. In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of forensic document examination. principal statutory provision relating to cross-examination on documents was s.55 of the Evidence Act 1898 (NSW) which complemented s.54 of the same Act, which was limited to oral statements. Each question consists of four Single Best Answer options, with one correct answer. Obliterations or alterations often involve inks different from the original entries. In the example below, my signature is shown at 10X, 15X, 20X and 25X. The most important tool a document examiner has is his or her own vision, but in this section and the laboratory tour section we will consider the external tools which enable the examiner to see, evaluate and record more than is apparent to the unaided eye. As you write on the top page, indentations of the writing are made onto the following page(s) due to pen pressure. James A. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. VSC6000HS. In the second image the contrast and brightness have been adjusted to give a clearer view of the area. The shaft of the quill act as ink reservoir. The microscope is no doubt the most widely used optical research instrument. Infrared imaging equipment and infrared photography have opened up a new world for the questioned document examiner, although the concept is not new. For the first image, a photograph of the original document (the original was on file in the courthouse and could not be removed from that location) was scanned in and cropped to the area in question. In this case, the ink or inks all appeared black and could not be separated with filtering, but the "2" could be seen under a microscope. Writing media examination – including instruments, inks and papers 4. The camera produces a bright flash when a picture is taken. Questioned document examination can be a extremely useful factor in solving a crime. Think of having two or more pages stacked together. Basic measuring tools include metric rulers, calipers for fine measurements and various glass alignment plates such as the one illustrated below which allow comparison and measurement of angles, height, width and spacing of handwriting and typewriting. To see details more closely, there are many types of microscopes. Most handwriting examination is done at powers of 10X to 50X (the subject is enlarged 10 to 50 times). This course will provide document examiners with a range of forensic identification, knowledge and skills to define, assess, analyse, apply, evaluate, research and report on facial or document comparisons. One enjoyable fringe benefit of being a document examiner is recreational use of the microscope. It might seem that the more powerful the microscope in terms of magnification, the better, but for the task of handwriting examination, this is not the case. Principles of Forensic Document Examination Forensic#document#examiners#often#deal#withquestions#of#document# authenticity.#Todetermine#whether#adocument#is#genuine,#anexaminer# may#attempt#to#confirmwho#created#the#document,#determine#the# timeframe#in#which#itwas#created,#identify#the#materials#used… These techniques do not always lead to answers, but they are the best initial approach because they are non-destructive methods. Instruments Commonly Used For Examination of the Eye. Below you see the results when two of my signatures are viewed under the comparison microscope at 15x. It is used to document eye diseases. The document can be laid upon the box and the light from behind the document makes it possible to see details not otherwise visible. ESDA. The interplay of colored light makes this image a bit confusing to the first time viewer, but essentially you are seeing a composite of two signatures (one viewed through a red filter and one viewed through a green filter) in which the black line segments are the places where the two signatures would coincide if the signatures were really on top of each other. A sophisticated instrument using infrared filters and ultraviolet light is used by forensic document examiners for such examinations. A binocular, or stereo, microscope is comfortable to use because, as the name implies, there are 2 eyepieces and the viewer focuses with both eyes. There are many instruments that the eye doctor might use to evaluate the eye and the vision system. “Snooper” … Every day we read about the deployment of a new “spy” satellite that employs infrared imaging. Another instrument of value in resolving cases is an instrument designed to recover indented writing. The second important use of photography in document examination is for recording and presenting evidence. Photography using specific films and filters can be used in conjunction with these special lights to reveal and record information. But in document examination there is a lot more to do with a computer. MAGNIFICATION - Magnifiers/Microscopes. It is also a tool in doing examinations and presenting evidence. It is used as a writing instrument after dipping in ink. A type of microscope that is particularly useful in document examination is the comparison microscope. Another plus of the stereomicroscope is the natural, comfortable feel of the instrument that results from being able to use both eyes for viewing. 2. A critical part of the job of the document examiner is to present evidence to the parties involved in a document dispute. Processing a document on an ESDA or similar instrument will not harm or mark a document. For example, a simple loupe (magnifier), is often used to enlarge fine details in writing or printed text. Objective: This study updates work published in 1998, which found that of 47 rating instruments appearing on websites offering health information, 14 described how they were developed, five provided instructions for use, and none reported the interobserver reliability and construct validity of the measurements. It is a good idea to start out with a low power when first examining a portion of a document and then to zoom in closer to the area you want to inspect. Document examiners use a wide range of magnification equipment. This is best provided by a light box which has a color corrected flourescent type light bulb. The Optics, Refraction, and Instruments exam is frequently taken early in residency training. Questioned documents may be handwritten or machine-written. Two documents can be viewed side-by-side and the images can be positioned so that they appear to overlay each other. A quill pen is a writing instrument made from flight feathers of large birds. A complete eye exam involves the use of many pieces of equipment and several instruments. Simultaneously, documents have evolved with advances in writing instruments, stamping devices, and the rise and availability of digital printing techniques. The metal or plastic speculum is inserted into the vagina and opens the walls to make the cervix accessible to … Photo equipment is likely to include a 35mm SLR camera, digital camera, copy stand, filters, extension tubes, lenses, and other items. Topics discussed include training and qualifications for forensic document examiners as well as the various methods used to exam differing projects, such as signatures, checks, computer and type generated documents, as well as obliterated writing. Copyright Â© 2001-2008 Emily J. Instruments used specially in Ophthalmology are as follows:  __Forcetoc__ Instrument list ... Loupe used ot search for magnified examination of the anterior segment of the eye (uniocular or binocular) Jackson's cross cylinder used to check the power and axis of a cylindrical lens by E. Lawrence Bickford, O.D. This document should be read in conjunction with the calculator sectionof “The conduct of IB Diploma Programme examinations” document and other information available on the Programme Resource Centre. Many examinations involve a comparison between questioned documents and genuine documents, referred to as reference standards. Next, the doctor will insert an instrument known as a speculum into the vagina. Forensic Identification (Document Examination) Overview. If you would like more of a challange, try these: Light sources include transmitted light, long and short wave ultraviolet light, and infra-red light. Ink dating is not a testing process common to most document examiners, particularly in private laboratories. The writing instrument that dominated for the longest period in history (over one-thousand years) was the quill pen . … THE USE OF DOCUMENTS IN EXAMINATION-IN-CHIEF. This document provides information to teachers in schools about: • using syllabus objectives and standards descriptors to design assessment instruments, tasks and items • developing assessment design processes . 10X 15X 20X 25X. By using a different color of filter on each document, the examiner can then see a third color in those areas where the two segments being compared overlap each other. Transmitted light is simply light from behind a document. A great microscope for document examination is a relatively low power microscope that is both reflective and stereoscopic. Handheld magnifiers (sold here by QDEWill) enlarge the material from 2 to 10 times (magnification powers of 2X to 10X) and may have lighting abilities as well to brighten the field of view. The chemical analysis for ink dating is a very specialized field. With high quality instrumentation comes quick and accurate results. In the third through sixth images the heavy inking that was used to obscure the original writing is gradually "removed" to reveal the "2". 5 Cross Examination on Documents In TPC v TNT Management 56 ALR at 681 Franki J. said that: 1 Miller v Cotton (1848) 5 Ga 341 at 349 Another instrument of value in resolving cases is an instrument designed to recover indented writing. Digital microscopes combine optics for magnification with digital capture technology to allow the user to view the magnified image on the monitor instead of or in addition to viewing it through the microscope eyepieces. The Examination is presented in a booklet and consists of 60 Single Best Answer questions. he is a member. The view through the microscope served as a guide in working with the computer image to prepare this series of illustrations. I utilize a variety of laboratory instruments in my work. For example, scanning in documents and cautious use of image processing software offers the potential to differentiate between inks and reveal obscured writing, as illustrated in series of images that follow. Instruments; Instruments used in the questioned document section include: Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA), Stereo-Microscope, Spectrophotometer, and Fingerprint Live Scanner etc. In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law.Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods. A forensic document examiner relies on a range of scientific instruments and specialized forensic equipment (from basic to advanced) to aid in these examinations. The instruments we need to convert UV and IR wavelengths of the light spectrum into visible images for the human eye are called video spectral comparators and forensic imaging spectrometers. Here is the most commonly-used equipment. A tool for both measurement and magnification is a "reticle" which is a magnifier eyepiece containing an engraved measurement scale which allows the examiner to precisely measure what is viewed under the microscope. This report presents some of the more commonly used items and includes some photographs of what this writer uses daily. Standards and methodologies … The examiner must be able to state and explain his or her opinion, but the best service is given when the examiner goes the final step of illustrating testimony with visual evidence. Forensic Document Examination or Questioned Document Examination involves the scientific examination of suspicious documents.
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