19, 103–132. Seagrass can be a cost effective flooring if you want 100% natural materials. Ecol. A. Ecol. Mar. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00617/full#supplementary-material. Seagrass restoration is often deemed too expensive due to a multitude of reasons including but not limited to high labor costs, challenges of propagation, and the need for repeated planting efforts due to losses (Bayraktarov et al., 2016). Prog. Local and regional scale habitat heterogeneity contribute to genetic adaptation in a commercially important marine mollusc (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia. (2010). Most of the specific knowledge and current restoration paradigms have been developed from temperate or subtropical experience. Whakatane: Environment Bay of Plenty. (2011). Mar. The use of shoots has been widely used in restoration. (2017). Dead Planet, Living Planet - Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable Development. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2012.03.009, Duarte, C. M. (1991). The development of science-based restoration tools for seagrass is an essential part of the process supporting NOAA’s conservation, restoration and litigation efforts in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). (2019). (2011). Coasts 38, 668–678. 39, 830–838. Ecol. (2019). The successes currently experienced in terrestrial restoration have been built upon decades of knowledge and experience gained through numerous studies and experiments, many of which were not successful initially but were invaluable for understanding why early restoration attempts did not work, and allowed for improvements to restoration methods and techniques to be made (Nellemann and Corcoran, 2010). Seagrass on the edge: land-use practices threaten coastal seagrass communities in Sabah, Malaysia. The specific goal was to develop techniques and infrastructure to fully exploit potential mechanized seed-harvesting capabilities, and to identify optimal conditions for storage and survival of large volumes of harvested seeds. Evaluating a large-scale eelgrass restoration project in the Chesapeake Bay. Central and rear-edge populations can be equally vulnerable to warming. 448, 173–176. Aquatic Botany 90(2): 204-208. Biological interactions in seagrasses include plant-substrate, plant-microbial communities, plant-plant (both intra- and interspecific), and between seagrass and other marine organisms/species such as shellfish, mangroves, and coral reefs. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2008.01.020, Wadgymar, S. M., Cumming, M. N., and Weis, A. E. (2015). Assuming a value of 12–25 US $ per ton CO 2 (Nordhaus 2010) and a social cost of greenhouse emissions of … Doi 10.1111/J.1526-100x.2010.00692.X. Thus, alternative sources of transplant units are required to minimize the overall negative impact of sourcing restoration material. Ecol. Ser. For. (2016). Ecol. support this mitigation. doi: 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16521.x, Morris, R. K. A., Alonso, I., Jefferson, R. G., and Kirby, K. J. Front. The composition of the microbiome on seagrass roots or within rhizospheres is an important indicator of seagrass health, and is already being applied for seagrass monitoring purposes (Trevathan-Tackett et al., 2019; Martin et al., 2020a). doi: 10.1111/nph.14944, Campbell, M. L., and Paling, E. I. Significant investment in seagrass restoration or the creation of new seagrass meadows where they were previously not found has been used to facilitate recovery of seagrass meadows in different parts of the world including Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand (e.g., Campbell, 2002; Bastyan and Cambridge, 2008; Orth and McGlathery, 2012; Matheson et al., 2017; Paulo et al., 2019). A. A broad-scale assessment of the risk to coastal seagrasses from cumulative threats. (2019). 19, 399–412. doi: 10.1515/bot-2012-0200. Biol. Bull. Mitig. Contact Us A faculty member in the Department of Geography has been awarded a grant as part of national funding for a series of projects on new technologies for monitoring and evaluating environmental restoration projects. Effects of current on photosynthesis and distribution of seagrasses. Seagrasses are marine angiosperms that grow in the coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica (Cullen-Unsworth and Unsworth, 2016), providing a wide range of ecosystem services to coastal communities (Nordlund et al., 2018a). Commun. J. Appl. Global significance of seagrass fishery activity. Conserv. (2012). (2017). A review of techniques using adult plants and seeds to transplant eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Coastal Bays. Spec. In contrast, restoration of marine coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, macroalgae, corals, saltmarshes, mangroves) is still a maturing area of science (Wood et al., 2019). —The laborious process of manually transplanting seagrass has often limited the size of restoration efforts. How ready are we to move species threatened from climate change? Site specific differences in morphometry and photophysiology in intertidal Zostera muelleri meadows. Prog. This may in turn make it harder to secure funding for future restoration works if the outcomes are uncertain, or even long-term monitoring programs which may be more expensive than the restoration itself. Typically, this can be determined empirically using quantitative (e.g., glass house or common garden experiments; Byars et al., 2007; Browne et al., 2019; Miller et al., 2019a) or correlative (e.g., genomic assessments for genotype x environment associations; Jordan et al., 2017; Miller et al., 2019b) genetic approaches. Seagrass restoration has a bad rap. Conserv. Sediment is collected close to the restoration sites so as not to introduce foreign substrate, and is fine-grained as this allows a cohesive substrate to be formed which in turn keeps the seeds together for injection into the sediment and keeps injections standardized. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135747, Ambo-Rappe, R., and Yasir, I. Lett. (2019a). Follow #SeagrassOceanRescue. Aquacult. Whakatane: Bay of Plenty Regional Council. Eng. Lett. Evol. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00012.x, Ledig, F. T., Rehfeldt, G. E., and Jaquish, B. 136, 31–34. Conserv. Ecol. Ecol. SAV Technical Notes Collection (ERDC/TN SAV-87-1). Sci. Auckland: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, 190. Environ. Efforts are already being made to make use of this valuable resource, such as during the aquaculture of P. australis seedlings where it was recommended as a low cost and readily available nutritional supplement in restoration (Statton et al., 2013). Change Biol. Biol. (in press). Ecol. A variety of tools and techniques have recently been developed that will improve the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and scalability of restoration programs. 24, 306–313. doi: 10.1007/s10499-009-9270-6, Martin, B. C., Alarcon, M. S., Gleeson, D., Middleton, J. Restor. Front. Remote Sens. Eng. (2014). (2018). 94, 942–952. Extreme temperatures, foundation species, and abrupt ecosystem change: an example from an iconic seagrass ecosystem. 4, 326–337. Numerous cautions have been raised when considering assisted migration, particularly in aquatic systems (Ricciardi and Simberloff, 2009, but see Schlaepfer et al., 2009): potential for the species to become invasive (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2008; Mueller and Hellman, 2008, Aitken and Whitlock, 2013; Hancock and Gallagher, 2014) and transfer of pests and pathogens from source locations (Simler et al., 2019). doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.01.014, Cussioli, M. C., Seeger, D., Pratt, D. R., Bryan, K. R., Bischoff, K., de Lange, W. P., et al. 63, 984–993. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.02.013, Rasheed, M. A., and Unsworth, R. K. F. (2011). Previous studies also indicate that genetic diversity is positively correlated with seagrass-related community species richness and productivity (Crutsinger et al., 2006; Whitlock, 2014). Evol. Management and Conservation of Seagrass in New Zealand: An Introduction. Biol. Res. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1515297112, Simler, A. Growth and physiological responses of three seagrass species to elevated sediment nutrients in Moreton Bay, Australia. U.S.A. 106, 12377–12381. 479, 63–73. Hawkins, S. J., Allen, J. R., Ross, P. M., and Genner, M. J. Infographic showing (a) all seagrass restoration trials carried out to date in Australasia, with inset map showing the concentration of studies carried out in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia; (b) length of monitoring of seagrass restoration trials based on states, (c) the proportion of different types of transplant units used in restoration trials across Australasia; and (d) the target genera in restoration trials across Australasia. Current experimental work thus focuses on: Orth, R. J., M. C. Harwell, et al. To upscale restoration programs, the involvement and commitment of industry partners, local communities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and state and federal government agencies are required to establish multi-year to decadal funded restoration projects. Community involvement in seagrass conservation is not new, with long term community-based monitoring programs in Queensland (McKenzie et al., 2000) and Western Australia (McKenzie et al., 2017). Front. Clim. The median cost of seagrass restoration was estimated at USD 106,782 per hectare based on 64 published studies (Bayraktarov et al.,2016), and this can be 10–400 times higher than the costs documented for terrestrial ecosystem restoration (Jacob et al.,2018). (2014). Going Forward: What Are the Gaps to Be Filled? 83, 398–407. Matheson, F., Wadhwa, S., Taumoepeau, A., and Smith, J. Figure 2. The use of aquaculture systems in seagrass restoration is relatively new, and the few published studies to date have shown promising results. (2019). Restor. Similarly, several shellfish restoration projects have also been initiated in Australia (Gillies et al., 2018). (2004). Mar. The efficiency of Z. marina seed collection has been improved through mechanical harvesting in North America, with an estimated maximum mechanical collection rate of 132,000 seeds/labor-hour versus 62,000 seeds/labor-hour using manual collection, with minimal damage to the donor meadow (Marion and Orth, 2010). With the exception of the research undertaken by Matheson, restoration efforts in New Zealand are typically focused upon shellfish (e.g., Marsden and Adkins, 2010; Hewitt and Cummings, 2013), which are important taonga for Māori (e.g., Paul-Burke et al., 2018). (2020). Major gaps in knowledge remain, however, prior research efforts have provided valuable insights into factors influencing the outcomes of restoration and there are now several examples of successful large-scale restoration programs. Adelaide: South Australian Research and Development Institute Aquatic Sciences. (2019). (2012). Geography Prof Takes on Seagrass Restoration Research Under New Grant. 1, 587–597. This study tested the efficiency of a mechanized planting boat, previously used for transplanting Halodule wrightii, relative to manual transplanting methods for establishing eelgrass in Chesapeake Bay. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2008.10.005, Mitsch, W. J. Project Seagrass is an marine conservation charity dedicated to ensuring that seagrass meadows are protected globally, for the biodiversity and people that depend on them. 7:024006. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/2/024006, Grech, A., Coles, R., and Marsh, H. (2011). doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12116, Ricciardi, A., and Simberloff, D. (2009). Declining seagrass habitats are recognized as a significant threat to fisheries production, with estimates that seagrasses contribute AUD $31.5 million per year to Australia’s commercial fisheries (Jänes et al., 2019). (2005). Perth: Environmental Protection Authority. Ecol. Biogeographic variation in temperature drives performance of kelp gametophytes during warming. A Rapid Response Assessment. (2017). Temmerman, S., Meire, P., Bouma, T. J., Herman, P. M. J., Ysebaert, T., and De Vriend, H. J. (2002). Ecol. 2004. Growing Zostera marina (eelgrass) from seeds in land-based culture systems for use in restoration projects. Nevertheless, the proposed NPS-FM and proposed National Environmental Standard for Freshwater do provide increased protections for coastal wetlands from activities including disturbance of the bed and removal of indigenous vegetation. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.08.020, Matheson, F. E., Reed, J., Dos Santos, V. M., Mackay, G., and Cummings, V. J. 18, 514–526. (2016). Projections of suitable habitat under climate change scenarios: implications for trans-boundary assisted colonization. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.029. Ecosyst. Mar. Australian shellfish ecosystems: past distribution, current status and future direction. Biol. Technical Series No. Unlike rehabilitation which ultimately relies on natural recolonization (Kirkman, 1989), restoration involves active intervention geared toward returning degraded habitats to a condition resembling their original condition (Paling et al., 2009), while habitat creation establishes new meadows in areas suitable for seagrass establishment but that were historically uninhabited by these plants (Morris et al., 2006). We aim to create the first ever full scale seagrass restoration project in the UK, doing our best for Goal 14: Life Below Water. This is a problem not unique to Australian and New Zealand studies (van Katwijk et al., 2016). Biol. Prog. The fundamental research that is occurring in New Zealand is required to understand how New Zealand seagrass function and thereby formulate a comprehensive understanding of local seagrass dynamics to successfully implement site specific restoration practices (e.g., Matheson et al., 2017). Science 313, 966–968. Prog. doi: 10.3354/MEPS08925, Reed, D. H., and Frankham, R. (2003). A Report for the Broome Community Seagrass Monitoring Project, Environs Kimberley. Available online at: https://ozfish.org.au/projects/seeds-for-snapper/ (accessed March 3, 2019). 250, 133–167. 1, 91–102. “Seagrass transplantation and other seagrass restoration methods,” in Global Seagrass Research Methods, eds F. T. Short and R. G. Coles (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science), 425–443. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71354-0_15, Piazza, B. P., Banks, P. D., and La Peyre, M. K. (2005). doi: 10.1139/a01-014, Crutsinger, G. M., Collins, M. D., Fordyce, J. Māori Mussel Memory. doi: 10.1111/faf.12416, Jardine, T. D. (2019). Is black swan grazing a threat to seagrass: indications from an observations study in New Zealand. Lundquist, C. J., Jones, T. C., Parkes, S. M., and Bulmer, R. H. (2018). Mar. Assistant Professor Sarah Lester received $365,699 for a research prject titled … Leederville: Oceanica Consulting Pty Ltd. Olsen, Y. S., Sánchez-Camacho, M., Murbà, N., and Duarte, C. M. (2012). doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.09.007, Jänes, H., Macreadie, P. I., Nicholson, E., Ierodioconou, D., Reeves, S., Taylor, M. D., et al. 2009. 99, 1217–1230. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2004.03.022, Rasheed, M. A., McKenna, S., Carter, A., and Coles, R. G. (2014). 67, 372–381. doi: 10.3354/meps10211, Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Hughes, L., McIntyre, S., Lindenmayer, D. B., Parmesan, C., Possingham, H. P., et al. Ecol. Importantly such monitoring needs to incorporate larger spatial scale assessments and mapping to be effective. J. Appl. Freshw. VIMS researchers helped pioneer the tools and techniques used to gather, preserve, and deploy shoots and seeds for restoring seagrass not only in Virginia but worldwide. There is a growing number of seagrass restoration success stories and an increasing number of researchers and practitioners in seagrass restoration in Australia and New Zealand. Adaptational lag to temperature in valley oak (Quercus lobata) can be mitigated by genome-informed assisted gene flow. While more complex models (e.g., Leathwick et al., 2008; Moilanen et al., 2011) may be desirable in the longer term, simple decision support tools for prioritizing seagrass restoration already exist that allow management agencies to maximize returns by targeting sites where intervention would be the most cost-effective (e.g., Grech et al., 2011; Tan et al., 2018). This requires extensive pre-planning and sufficient time to consult with Traditional Owners prior to a project commencing. (2019). ES was supported by an Australian Research Council grant to GK (DP180100668). Annu. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.11.001, Ens, E. J., Pert, P., Clarke, P. A., Budden, M., Clubb, L., Doran, B., et al. Freshw. Effective seed-based restoration will require improved techniques for the collection, handling and storage of seeds to optimize germination and survival. Hewitt, J. E., and Cummings, V. (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10021-003-0180-6, Ince, R., Hyndes, G. A., Lavery, P. S., and Vanderklift, M. A. (1997). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106, Wear, R. J., Tanner, J. E., and Hoare, S. L. (2010). Orth, R. J., Harwell, M. C., Bailey, E. M., Bartholomew, A., Jawad, J. T., Lombana, A. V., et al. Sci. Invasions 8, 153–161. Long-term Seagrass Monitoring in Roebuck Bay, Broome: Report on the First 10 Years. Mar. Root microbiomes as indicators of seagrass health. (2008). The model presented suggests that the costs of seagrass restoration programmes may be fully recovered by the total CO 2 captured in societies with a carbon tax in place. Sea surface temperatures and seagrass mortality in Florida Bay: spatial and temporal patterns discerned from MODIS and AVHRR data. doi: 10.1177/1075547016656191, Martins, G. M., Thompson, R. C., Neto, A. I., Hawkins, S. J., and Jenkins, S. R. (2010). Bot. 3:64. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00064, Thomson, J. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12694, Touchette, B. W., and Burkholder, J. M. (2000). Pollut. 16, 2366–2375. Matheson, F. E., Lundquist, C. J., Gemmill, C. E. C., and Pilditch, C. A. Aquat. J. Exp. Seagrass restoration is a rapidly maturing discipline, but improved restoration practices are needed to enhance the success of future programs. The DEP seagrass restoration program consists of three components: salvage, laboratory tissue culture and aquaculture. The transplantations were laid out in a chess board pattern, mixing bare bottom and transplanted areas. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2017.01.024. Int. Change Biol. 184, 30–36. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-93043-5_15, Williams, S. L. (2001). doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00873.x, Statton, J., Dixon, K. W., Hovey, R. K., and Kendrick, G. A. Conserv. In 1978, VIMS researchers began investigating techniques for reintroducing eelgrass to areas where it had been eliminated. Human assistance isn’t always necessary, though. (2017). Long-term climate-associated dynamics of a tropical seagrass meadow: implications for the future. Oikos 117, 763–777. The seagrass salvage program recovers seagrasses which would otherwise be lost as a result of marine construction (i.e., docks, piers) and transplants the grass to areas of similar habitat where beds are in need of restoration. Centre for Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research (TropWATER) Report 17/35. J. Exp. 7, 393–396. Seed germination in a southern Australian temperate seagrass. A., Gompert, Z., Nice, C. C., and Sanders, N. J. All Rights Reserved ©, A rapid and simple method for transplanting eelgrass using single, unanchored shoots. Novel methods for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters. Restoring eelgrass (Zostera marina) from seed: A comparison of planting methods for large scale projects. Ecol. (2006). The effects of manipulating microhabitat size and variability on tropical seawall biodiversity: field and flume experiments. For example, coordinated efforts by governmental bodies and restoration scientists to restore Amphibolis meadows in South Australia has shown promising results, with trials using hessian bags in seedling recruitment showing survival for at least 5 years and greater stem lengths compared to natural meadows (Tanner, 2015; Supplementary Table S1). B Biol. (2017). Bot. To counter the use of plastic, researchers are developing artificial seagrass made entirely out of fully biodegradable materials to help facilitate restoration without the plastic footprint (The SeaArt Project, 2020). 102, 857–872. A world of possibilities: six restoration strategies to support the United Nation’s decade on ecosystem restoration. Monitoring could incorporate the use of appropriately trained volunteers, which will help drive research costs down, raise awareness and encourage local communities to have a sense of ownership in restoration programs. 21, 3786–3799. In turn, scientists can also gain valuable insights into local environmental and socio-economic conditions from regional managers who have on-the-ground experience and knowledge, which could prove to be extremely beneficial to restoration programs. GRID-Arendal: United Nations Environment Programme. Although survival of transplanted seagrass fragments or cores was low in many studies, promising results are increasingly reported, with transplant units surviving more than 2 years or showing shoot densities similar to naturally occurring meadows (e.g., Bastyan and Cambridge, 2008; Oceanica Consulting Pty Ltd., 2011, Matheson et al., 2017). Conserv. 45, 91–99. Biogeochem 87, 113–126. restoration trials, with projects using different planting unit types and sizes, anchorage approaches, sediment stabilisation techniques, fertilisation, growth hormones and mechanical planting systems. 3:65. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2015.00065, Ralph, P. J., Durako, M. J., Enríquez, S., Collier, C. J., and Doblin, M. A. 217, 253–277. Prog. Pollut. Pollut. What is ecological engineering? In Australia, seedling culture has also been carried out on Prunus angustifolia (Irving et al., 2010) and P. australis (Statton et al., 2013). Environ. In New Zealand, it is recommended that restoration initiatives be grounded in tikanga Māori and Māori values and perspectives, and be co-designed with Māori to ensure benefit and utility to Māori (Williams et al., 2018). 93, 237–243. Ecological restoration of land with particular reference to the mining of metals and industrial minerals: a review of theory and practice. Clearly no assisted migration is risk free, but appropriate precautions including rigorous risk assessment and biosecurity protocols will act to minimize some concerns (Hancock and Gallagher, 2014; Simler et al., 2019). However, the true extent of seagrass loss remains uncertain due to estimates of seagrass areal extent globally being unknown, with many regions of Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and the western Indian Ocean still largely understudied and/or undocumented (Gullström et al., 2002; Wabnitz et al., 2008; Fortes et al., 2018).
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